Tuesday, October 24, 2017

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Frequently Asked Questions

  • How do I give my pet his/her medication?
  • Routine medication: What does this mean for my pet?
  • How do I collect a urine sample?
  • What does "geriatric" mean for my pet?
  • What is a microchip?
  • Nutrition: When should I change my puppy/kitten to adult food?
  • Obesity, should I be concerned?
  • Inappropriate elimination (urination, defecation)
  • Medical information - Where can I find out more about my pet's illness?
  • Pet Insurance
  • Lyme Disease


  • Does my pet need to have his/her teeth cleaned?
               According to the American Veterinary Dental Society, greater than 80% of dogs and 70% of cats have dental disease by 3 years of age. Good dental hygiene increases your pet's life span and improves his/her quality of life. Plaque and tartar harbour the bacteria that lead to infections not only in the mouth, but also the heart, kidneys, and liver. Severe periodontal disease is very painful resulting in a poor quality of life for our pets. Daily brushing of your pet's teeth combined with regular professional cleaning by your veterinarian is your pet's best defense.

    How do I brush my pet's teeth?
               Start simply by handling your pet's mouth for several minutes a day. Once your pet has accepted this for a few days, gently hold the mouth closed and lift the lip on one side and brush the outside surfaces of the teeth. Increase the number of teeth brushed each time until your pet accepts the routine willingly. The whole process should take only a minute or two.

               If you have a pet that is a "struggler," you can restrain it by wrapping a large bath towel or blanket around the whole body with just the head protruding. If you continue to have problems brushing the teeth, call your veterinarian for help. It will be worth the effort.

               Do NOT use human toothpaste. Our pets swallow the toothpaste and human toothpaste can cause gastric (stomach) problems. Also, your pet will strongly resent the taste of human toothpaste; animal toothpaste is flavoured for their taste buds! Baking soda is not advisable either since the high sodium level may cause problems in some animals.

    Should I have my pet spayed/neutered and when?
               Most veterinarians do advocate spaying or neutering any dog or cat not being used for specific breeding purposes. Population control of our pets is very important since unwanted animals are taken in by humane societies and animal control authorities daily. Many animals are euthanized on a routine basis due to overpopulation. Sterilizing your pet is the best way to protect against the overpopulation problem.

               In addition, sterilization has many behavioural and medical advantages. Spayed/neutered pets interact much better with other pets and with people, thereby, decreasing the risk of injury. Given the increasing density of both pets and people living together in cities, this can be very important. Urine marking in both male dogs and male cats is another behavioural reason for spaying/neutering our pets. Medical reasons include decreasing or even eliminating the risk of serious diseases such as uterine infection (potentially fatal), uterine or ovarian cancer, mammary cancer, testicular cancer and prostate disease.

               Most veterinarians recommend spaying/neutering at around 6 months of age. This is after your pet has completed his/her set of puppy/kitten vaccines, but before sexual maturity. At this time your pet is protected from picking up diseases from the animal hospital, but not yet at risk for behavior or medical problems associated with sexual maturity.

    Why does my pet's spay/neuter cost so much?
               Though considered routine, spaying/neuter your pet involves many considerations. Each patient is given a pre-surgical examination to identify any other problems that could be addressed at the same time as this surgery. A sterile surgery room needs to be maintained by the veterinary clinic. In addition, a set of sterilized instruments, a mask, cap, sterile gown and gloves for the veterinary surgeon are required for each patient. Drugs (intravenous and gas) are needed for the induction and maintenance of the patient's anesthesia. A trained veterinary technician is present to monitor the patient's anesthesia during surgery and provide post-operative nursing care. Immediate post-operative pain control medication is provided. Overnight hospitalization is provided where indicated to give a good night of confined, quiet rest after surgery. A post operative evaluation is also given to determine if the patient needs such things as additional pain control medication or an e-collar to prevent licking and chewing at the incision. A hospital discharge appointment with a veterinary technician is given in order to go over the instructions for home care and answer any questions that you might have. Finally, an appointment to remove skin sutures is also provided. All of these things add up to good health care for your companion.

    Why is "pre-anesthetic blood work" important for my pet?
               "Pre-anesthetic blood work" checks that your pet's major organs are functioning properly. This is very important with respect to any general anesthesia since these organs are responsible for properly processing and eliminating the drugs used for anesthesia. Blood work can, therefore, reduce the risk associated with general anesthesia and bring to light any hidden health conditions that may add to that risk for your pet.

               As your pet ages, the risk for undetected diseases also increases. Appropriate testing and monitoring to identify these problems before anesthesia becomes even more important. In order to decrease risk, your veterinarian may take action such as change anesthetic drugs, postpone or even cancel an elective procedure. Consult your veterinarian about your particular pet's circumstances with respect to blood work.

    Does my pet really need vaccines?
               Yes, for one thing remember that your pet ages at a much accelerated rate compared to people. This means that an animal's immune system also ages very rapidly. So although immunity provided through vaccines may last for many years in people, it does not last as long in our pets.

               Many of the diseases that pets are vaccinated for are highly contagious and extremely serious (often fatal). Direct contact with a sick animal is often not required. The virus or bacteria can be picked up from contaminated grass, shoes, hands, etc. You could easily bring such an organism home to your pet and never even know it! The best treatment is prevention through vaccines. Your veterinarian will help tailor a vaccine schedule for your particular pet and his/her circumstances so that only the necessary vaccines are given at an appropriate frequency.

               In addition, an annual examination gives the veterinarian the opportunity to pick up on any problems with your pet. This is also the ideal time to discuss any concerns that you may have. Subtle changes picked up at the annual examination such as weight loss or gain and dental disease can profoundly impact your pet's life span.

               Finally, we are a veterinary hospital which means that we have a large volume of pets, both healthy and sick, through the clinic on a daily basis. For this very reason we will require that your pet be up to date on all of his/her required vaccines prior to any boarding or elective procedures that may need to be done. This includes but is not limited to things like dental cleaning, lump removals, biopsies, ultrasound, radiographs (x-rays), etc. Although we are constantly sterilizing and disinfecting all surfaces as much as possible, vaccination will further ensure that preventable diseases are not accidentally brought into the clinic or taken home by your pet.

    Rabies vaccine - is it really necessary since my pet is indoor?
               Rabies is 100% fatal for both pets and people! Ottawa is currently considered high risk since documented wildlife rabies is headed in our direction. Rabies is carried primarily by skunks, raccoons and foxes, but all mammals are susceptible (bats included). Most of us in the suburban areas know that skunks and raccoons live here with us. Research has shown that the best way to protect our families is to vaccinate our pets. It only takes one escape by our cat or one "potty" break for the dog to meet up with an infected animal - and it could be in your back yard.

               In addition, it is Ontario provincial law that all dogs and cats be vaccinated for rabies. If your pet should bite someone, even if provoked or by accident, the province can demand euthanasia and rabies testing if your pet does not have a current rabies vaccination. This is for the protection of the bitten person.

               Any person bitten by any animal should seek immediate medical attention. Rabies must be prevented by vaccinating the person soon after exposure. In addition, bacterial infections caused by bite wounds are very common and also very serious. Any bite wound should be treated by a human physician accordingly.

    What vaccines does my pet need for boarding?
               Vaccines are especially important during boarding since many animals are brought together in a small area. Add to that the stress of boarding and this becomes an ideal condition for disease transmission.

    Dogs: The basic canine vaccines are DHPP, Rabies and Bordatella. DHPP is for canine distemper virus, infectious hepatitis and adenovirus 2, parvo virus and parainfluenza virus. These are all very highly contagious and often fatal diseases of dogs. Bordatella (often referred to as "kennel cough") is a very contagious upper respiratory infection (sinus, trachea or bronchi) of dogs that is spread through the air by an infected coughing dog. Bordatella bronchiseptica is a common bacteria associated with this type of infection. Another cause is parainfluenza virus. Young puppies are especially susceptible and can end up with pneumonia as a result of infection. Because of its easy transmission between dogs, most boarding kennels require vaccination in order to prevent your pet from becoming infected while boarding.

    Cats: The basic feline vaccines are FVRCP and Rabies. FVRCP is for feline viral rhinotracheitis, calici virus and panleukopenia. These are all highly contagious and very serious diseases of cats.

               Rabies vaccine is provincial law and is for the protection not only of the pets, but also of the people that will be taking care of your pet. It is 100% fatal to people and animals infected but not receiving early treatment.

    Should I deworm my pet?
               According to the Companion Animal Parasite Council and the Center for Disease Control (CDC), all pets should have their stool tested at least once a year and be on a routine deworming program. Test a fecal sample from your pet and set up a deworming program with your veterinarian as soon as possible and especially after obtaining a new puppy or kitten. For more information visit www.petsandparasites.org.

               Roundworms and hookworms are examples of common intestinal parasites in cats and dogs that have the potential to make people sick (zoonosis). Pets infested with these parasites will shed microscopic eggs in their stool, contaminating the environment. A person unknowingly ingesting roundworm eggs can develop visceral larval migrans (VLM). VLM occurs when the parasites end up in the "wrong" host (i.e. people). Instead of living in the intestine (as in a dog or cat), they get "lost" and migrate to other organs, potentially causing serious diseases such as blindness. Hookworm larva, which tend to live in grass and sand areas, can invade and migrate through human skin. Children and people with reduced immune function are most susceptible, but recent studies have shown that 30% of all children test positive for exposure to intestinal parasites of pets. In addition, the microscopic eggs have been shown to survive for six years in the soil.

               Year round deworming will help ensure that any parasites picked up by our pets are eliminated on a monthly basis. Thus, keeping our pets clean and not adding to further contamination of the environment which risks the health of our children.

               For cats, in particular outdoor cats, monthly deworming is very important. These cats are using playground sandboxes and gardens to eliminate in. It only takes 3 weeks from ingestion of a mouse until the cats begin shedding the microscopic eggs in their stool. Monthly deworming is key to keeping our cats and, therefore, our play areas clean.

               For dogs, parasite control is simply an extension of the heartworm season. Some of the medications currently being used June through November to control heartworms are also very effective intestinal dewormers. We are, therefore, recommending year round use of heartworm medication for our canine patients. Please call and inquire which medication will meet your pets' specific needs.

               In addition to being zoonotic, these and other intestinal parasites can cause life threatening illnesses for your pet. Hookworms and whips worms can cause massive blood loss through the intestines which can be fatal. Roundworms and tapeworms deprive your pet of nutritional components from their food.

               Other intestinal parasites include organisms like protozoa (i.e. giardia and coccidia) and bacteria (i.e. e-coli). These organisms can be spread by other pets and by wildlife to our companions. Some of these organisms can also be transferred to people. They usually cause chronic or reoccurring diarrhea. Special tests are needed to confirm this type of infection.

               Most intestinal parasites are easily spread between pets by a "fecal-oral" route. This means the eggs are shed in the stool and then picked up by another pet orally. Direct pet contact is not required to pass these parasites along. Even though we all "stoop & scoop" after our pets, it is impossible to pick every microscopic particle up. Microscopic amounts left in the dirt or grass are then a source of spreading. Your pet simply needs to smell or step in this grass then lick his/her lips or paws in order to pick up the organism. In addition, these parasites are extremely hardy, meaning that they survive very well in the soil and cold weather. Microscopic amounts can also be unwittingly carried home by owners on their shoes. In this way, a pet that never leaves the home can also become infected.

               Tapeworms are the exception to this type of transmission. They are carried by intermediate hosts which are either fleas or small rodents. When your pet catches mice or gets fleas, he/she is at risk for picking up a tapeworm infection.

               Testing and deworming only identifies and kills, respectively, the adult stages of these parasites. Intestinal worms have inactive larval stages that can remain sequestered in the muscle for years. Any type of stress such as having puppies/kittens, another disease, moving etc. can cause the inactive stages to migrate and mature in the intestine. In this way a pet that has been tested negative and stayed indoors for years can suddenly appear to have a new infection.

               Testing for intestinal parasites involves sending a sample of a fresh stool sample to a laboratory. Only roundworms and tapeworms can easily be seen with the naked eye. Even with these parasites, pets can have infections when no worms are visible in the stool. Special sample preparation techniques and microscopic examination are needed to accurately identify animals that are infected. All pets should be tested and preventative deworming program discussed with your veterinarian annually.

               Finally, although diarrhea is one sign of intestinal parasites, keep in mind two important things: 1) that an animal with intestinal parasites does not always have diarrhea and 2) intestinal parasites are only one of many causes of diarrhea in pets.

    What are heartworms?
               Heartworms are 6 to 14 inch long worms that live in the heart of a dog. Dogs become infected when bitten by a mosquito carrying the heartworm larvae. Heartworm infection can lead to life threatening heart failure. Ottawa area does have dogs that test positive each year for adult heartworm infection. Since transmission is by a mosquito, direct dog to dog contact is not required. Although dogs are the primary host, occasionally cats become infected as well. The best treatment is to prevent infection in the first place. Prevention involves using a heartworm medication (usually monthly) during the mosquito season which is June 1st to November 1st in the Ottawa area. Preventatives work by killing the larval stages that your pet has become infected with over the preceding month. Since a different drug is required to treat adult heartworm infections, all dogs should be tested on a regular basis to identify and then treat any breakthrough heartworm infections.

               Several products are currently on the market for prevention of heartworm infection. Products range from treating only heartworm and intestinal parasites to those that also treat for fleas, ticks and mites. Consult with your veterinarian to determine which product meets the needs or you and your pet's particular life style. Products are available to treat either dogs or cats.

    How do I give my pet his/her medication?
               Pets can be very challenging to give medication to, but on occasion it needs to be done. Here are a few tips to help.

    Dogs: Medication can often be given hidden in a morsel of food. A bit of canned food makes things easiest since a tablespoon sized amount can be formed into a ball. The tablet or capsule can be hidden on the inside. If you offer this treat prior to a meal, when your pet is hungriest, your dog should accept it readily.

    Cats: Place your pet in a confined area so that he/she cannot get away by backing up. If right handed, place your thumb and forefinger of your left hand on either side of the face just below the eyes (as though you were going to pet him/her on the top of the head). With the medication in your right hand, use your finger to gently pull the jaw down and rapidly place the medication on the back of the tongue. Quickly close the mouth after dropping in the medication and gently message the throat until her/she swallows (often indicated by licking of his/her nose).

               To give liquid medication, insert the dropper or syringe between the teeth and the cheek, far enough to that the medication does not dribble out. While tilting the pet's nose up toward the ceiling, slowly dispense the medication.

    Routine medication: What does this mean for my pet?
               Many illnesses such as advanced arthritis, diabetes, thyroid disease, cardiac disease, allergies, etc. require the use of medication long term (chronic) in order to control or treat the disease. It is important in these cases that the pet have frequent examinations and blood work. This helps us monitor the pet's condition for side effects and make needed dose changes in a timely manner. Also keep in mind that our pet's age much faster that we do. Six months for cats and dogs are the equivalent of 5 to 10 years to people. Examinations include not only the physical exam of your pet, but also other less obvious things such as weight monitoring and appropriate questions to help evaluate your pet's progress.

               Routine blood work is indicated for animals on chronic medication. In some cases blood work helps to determine what dosage of medication your pet should be on (i.e. diabetes, thyroid disease, epilepsy). In other cases, blood work helps to monitor for potentially harmful side-effects (arthritis, cardiac, epilepsy medication). In addition, most pets being treated for these types of diseases are older and, therefore, more likely to have additional complicating diseases such periodontal disease, urinary infection, etc. Routine examinations and blood testing can help identify these situations so that they can be appropriately addressed. These things together will help your veterinarian determine when changes in treatment need to be made. Frequent monitoring of your pet's condition is an important part of working to increase his/her life span and quality of life.

               The frequency and type of blood tests your pet need is determined by the disease being treated and the medication itself. For the most part, we recommend testing be done after any dosage change and then every 6 to 12 months depending on the illness. If you are unsure about your pet's situation, ask your veterinarian what type of schedule is best for your pet.

    How do I collect a urine sample?
    Dogs: Urine is easiest collected while walking on a leash since you are already very close to your pet. In addition, a first morning urine sample is the most accurate and also the easiest time to collect since this is usually when his/her bladder is the most full. For female dogs, try using a clean aluminum pie plate or disposable Tupperware. When she squats to urinate, simply slide the container underneath her into the stream from the rear. For male dogs, place the container under the dogs abdomen and in the urine stream when he stops and lifts his leg to urinate.

    Cats: Obtain a fake non-absorbing kitty litter from your veterinarian to help collect the urine sample. Give your litter box a good clean with soap and water, then place the special litter in the box. Your cat and his/her box will need to be separated from other cats in the house to ensure that urine is obtained from the correct pet. Give your cat several hours to use the box. After he/she has urinated, transfer it to the provided container and then to your veterinarian as soon as possible. NOTE: some cats refuse to use this special type of litter, so if your do not get urine after 4-5 hours, abandon the project and give back the normal litter and box. You will need to discuss with your veterinarian another way of getting the sample, which will most likely need to be collected by your veterinarian.

    NOTE: Timing is crucial in urine sample analysis as the cells in the urine will rapidly degrade leading to incorrect test results. For this reason, ideally the sample should be in your veterinarian's hands within 1/2 hour of collection and certainly within 2 hours at the very most.

    What does "geriatric" mean for my pet?
               Like with people, as your pet ages, the incidence of disease also increases. The very nature of animals is "survival of the fittest" which means that the sick try to hide it as long as possible. As pet owners, we want to do the very best for our companions to extend their time with us as long as possible. With early detection, we can often alter the course of disease thereby lengthening the life span of our companions. For this reason, older pets (over 8 years of age) should have a complete physical exam every 6 months and blood work once a year. FoxCreek Animal Hospital can help set up a plan for your particular pet.

    What is a microchip?
               A microchip is a rice sized transponder, on which a unique number is embedded. The microchip is inserted using a needle between the shoulder blades of dogs and cats. The unique microchip number of your pet is then registered in a data base. The data base should include the owner's current telephone number, address and an emergency contact number. Any important medical information can also be entered into the data base. Most shelters, emergency clinics and veterinary clinics in Canada use readers or scanners as part of dealing with lost pets. When a lost pet with a microchip is identified, the microchip company is then contacted. Information in that pet's data base is used to locate the owner's. It is, therefore, important to keep your pet's as well as your own information up to date in the database.

    Nutrition: When should I change my puppy/kitten to adult food?
               Balanced nutrition is an extremely important aspect of your companion's overall good health and well being. This means monitoring both what and how much they eat from the start. A high quality, well balanced appropriate pet food will more than pay for itself by helping to decrease the incidence of disease and extend your pet's life span just like it does for people.

               All puppies and kittens have specific nutritional requirements for appropriate growth. A high quality nutritionally balanced food should be fed during this time period. For cats and small breed dogs, the growth rate slows significantly at around 6 to 7 months of age. In addition, most of us are spaying or neutering our pets at this same age which also causes a significant decrease in the metabolic rate. The end result is a dramatic decrease in the amount of calories required to meet daily needs. These pets should be put on a high quality adult maintenance food at this time. Special adult maintenance foods also are available from your veterinarian to help control some health issues known to plague cats and small dogs such as periodontal and urinary disease.

               Large and giant breed dogs on the other hand have different nutritional requirements. Because of their extremely rapid growth rate during the first year, they should be put on a high quality food formulated for large breeds. These foods are nutritionally balanced to help avoid some of the orthopaedic problems encountered with rapid growth. Puppies should stay on this special food until around 1 year of age for large breeds and 1 and 1/2 years for giant breeds when they have completed most of their growth. A high quality adult maintenance food can then be selected to help control common problems encountered by large and giant breed dogs such as obesity and joint disease.

               Remember that good nutrition and weight control can extend your pet's life span and improve his/her quality of life. Ask your veterinarian which food is appropriate for your pet. Here at FoxCreek Animal Hospital, we have a complete line of high quality pet foods. Please ask us.

    Obesity, should I be concerned?
               Obesity is as much of a problem for our pets these days as it is for us. It can lead to serious health problems that reduce both your companion's quality of life and his/her life span. Appropriate weight monitoring is a very important part of maintaining your pet's good health. Just as for people, being overweight increases the likelihood of joint problems, diabetes and liver problems. No matter how young or old your pet is, it is never too early or too late to get control of his/her weight. Regular exercise, calorie control and veterinary examinations are keys to fighting weight problems.

               Your veterinarian can help you identify a weight problem in your pet and then make a recommendation for control. Veterinary prescription diets are very useful for calorie restriction (less than 270 Kcal/cup), while also controlling your pet's hunger. Ask your veterinarian which food is appropriate for your pet's condition. Remember too that other diseases such as hypothyroid and cushing's disease can also cause your pet to be overweight, so veterinary consultation can be a very important part of your pet's weight management.

               Finally, routinely monitoring of any pet that is on a weight control diet is important. Monthly weight checks will help ensure that your pet is losing enough weight, but not too much. Once your pet has reached his/her target weight, your veterinarian can then help you select a food nutritionally appropriate for your companion in order to maintain the weight long term.

    Inappropriate elimination (urination, defecation)
               Inappropriate elimination is a common problem for our indoor pets (both cats and dogs). It is also one of the most common reasons for feline euthanasia. Problems result for a variety of reasons including bringing pets indoors, high density of pets and people in small spaces as well as medical problems. For both male dogs and male cats, early neutering will help eliminate urinary marking before it starts.

               For cats, the recommendation is one more litter box than there are cats in the household and of course daily litter box cleaning. This is due to the fact that cats do establish territories within a house. Different cats will also have different preferences in terms of litter type and box style (i.e. hood vs. no hood). For more information on litter boxes and indoor cat recommendations visit the "Indoor Cat Initiative" (www.indoorcat.org).

               Because inappropriate elimination can have both behavioural and medical causes, any pet that has a change in its housetraining should be seen by a veterinarian as soon as possible. Medical problems such as intestinal parasites, diabetes, kidney disease and urinary infection can cause our pets' to start urinating or defecating in the house. Once possible medical causes have been eliminated, behavioural issues can be addressed. Remember too, that the longer a problem continues, the worse things get and the more difficult it will be to correct. This is true for both medical and behavioural issues. Please contact us as soon as you encounter a problem.

    Medical information - Where can I find out more about my pet's illness?
               Many common diseases affect our pets every day. The more pet owner's know about their pet's illness, the more they can help better care for their companion. Reliable information about many common diseases is available through the internet, but can be difficult to find. Here are some sites that you may find useful:

    Pet Insurance
               Family pets are an important part of our lives. They are no longer just our pets. Instead, they are our companions, guardians and best friends. For this reason, we want to do everything we can to ensure a long and good life. You should be aware of the dangers your pet can come across and the financial strain it can put on your savings (from bee stings, allergic reactions, swallowing a foreign object, or breaking a bone to name only a few). In addition, as our medicine is always improving for our pets, there is more and more that we can do to treat long term illnesses such as diabetes, cardiac and thyroid disease, kidney failure, etc. Your pet could easily become hurt, injured or ill and veterinary treatments may cost more than you thought. The last thing you need to worry about is an unexpected expense. Insurance for our companions is now available to help meet these financial needs.

    Lyme Disease
               Lyme disease was first diagnosed in dogs and people in Canada in the middle 1980`s. It is a serious illness which can cause debilitation, arthritis and major organ damage (kidney). It is important to be aware that lyme disease infection is quite different in dogs compared with the humans After being bitten by a tick that has transmitted the lyme disease bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi, 80% of people will develop a rash and/or flu-like symptoms. In the next few weeks the person develops joint pain and few experience neurologic symptoms and heart rhythm abnormalities as well. At this same point in the infection timeline, dogs have yet to develop any symptoms at all.

               In dogs, Lyme disease does not begin to manifest for weeks to months after infection at which point signs of arthritis are typically noticed. There often is a fever and enlarged lymph nodes. Long term infection can result in life threatening kidney disease (glomerular disease).

               Although lyme disease is caused by a bacteria, it is carried and spread to other animals by the so called "deer tick". The tick transfers the bacteria from infected wildlife such as deer and small mammals (mice, skunks, raccoons, etc) to our pets. These ticks are common to most provinces and are increasing in numbers. The tick's small sized and relatively painless bite makes it hard to detect particularly on our furry companions. By the time the tick as become engorged enough on blood to be easily detected, the tick will have transmitted the lyme disease bacteria to your pet.

    Tick bites often go unnoticed, making the diagnosis of lyme disease difficult. Add to this the fact that most dogs do not become sick for months after the infection and even then the signs are very vague. The result is that lyme disease in dogs is difficult to identify. Treatment involves weeks of antibiotic therapy, but when identified early enough can have a good outcome. However, pet not diagnosed until later in the disease are at risk for life threatening kidney damage. For these reasons prevention is key to protecting our companions that are at risk.

    Prevention can be obtained only by vaccination. A vaccine is currently available to help your canine pet fight the borrelia burgdorferi bacteria. Products such as Revolution® kill ticks on your pet, but not before the lyme bacteria can be transmitted. Dogs cannot be tested for lyme disease until at least 1 month after the tick bite. Current recommendations are that only those dogs that are both testing positive for lyme disease and are ill should be treated. Cats are very rarely affected by lyme disease for which reason there is no feline vaccine available.

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Foxcreek Animal Hospital | 2501 Third Line, Unit 12 (Third Line & Dundas) Oakville Ontario L6M 5A9 | 905-469-0800
foxcreekvet@hotmail.ca | www.foxcreek.goldbook.ca